Simulação do crescimento e produtividade de arroz no Rio Grande do Sul pelo modelo E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]; SimulArroz em simular a biomassa foi conduzido um experimento de campo em , BRS Querência, IRGA and SCRBSR Tio Taka) with three sowing dates. Main · Videos; El experimento del arroz yahoo dating. The metaphor doesn't jug a olden metaphor for how the jug whereas hedonists jug outside the jug. Barbosa, Patricia O., E-mail: [email protected] [Universidade Federal do Rio Aunque el gen que codifica para esta proteína presenta una marcada .. Experimento de escoamento superficial, em escala piloto, foi conduzido para .. o efeito de dose de aplicação de N sobre a suscetibilidade de plantas de arroz.
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Some research studies that have been conducted on rice hybrids and varieties have indicated the possibility of decreasing plant density using different distances between rows Souza et al. This is an important way to reduce the amount of seed sown per area compared with the current recommendations. In addition, the use of this technology can reduce production costs, making this method more attractive and consequently, the most widely used in commercial irrigated rice crops.
Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the performance and plasticity in the yield and grain quality of three rice hybrids using different row spacing. Three hybrids were used: Three sowing arrangements that corresponded to cm, cm and cm skip-row i.
The arrangements of these plants did not change the density of seeds within a row, which was equivalent to a sowing density of 40 kg ha The experiments were conducted at three different sites.
The same fertilizer, doses and timing of nitrogen application, and chemical treatment for controlling pests and diseases was used in the management of the experiments at all locations. After tillage, prior to the desiccation of the vegetation before rice was planted, glyphosate was applied 1, g ha At the S3 stage needle pointa second application of glyphosate 1, g ha-1 was performed, and irrigation occurred soon after herbicide application.
Fertilization was performed based on the interpretation of the soil analysis; kg ha-1 of granular fertilizer was applied at planting using a furrow seeder.
Grain yield and water use efficiency in irrigated rice according to sowing date
In addition, two applications of nitrogen were conducted; the first application occurred 15 days after emergence at the V3 stage three-leaf rice and the second after the differentiation of floral primordia. The productivity, grain yield and commercial quality of the grains were analyzed. Sampling was conducted by measuring grain moisture in the field. The evaluations were performed every 2 days at the same time, and the grains used were collected from the edges of the plots using a portable device Platinum brand that measured grain moisture content H model.
A 3-kg grain sample was collected from each plot. From this sample, a g subsample was used for the determination of impurities and a g subsample was used for the determination of moisture using a universal tester Gehara brand. One kilogram of each sample was collected and stored in airtight plastic containers. A sample of g of paddy rice was collected and processed for one minute using a rice mill model MT, Suzuki to determine the percentage of whole grains, broken grains and total milling yield.
After polishing, the grains were weighed and this value was regarded as the total milling yield, which was expressed as a percentage. The percentage of total milling grains was calculated by adding the percentage of whole grains and broken grains. Subsequently, polished grains were placed in a number two "trieur'' and grain separation was processed for thirty seconds. The grains that remained in the ''trieur" were weighed to calculate the yield of whole and broken grains, both expressed as a percentage.
A rice analyzer model was used to determine the percentage of chalk grains, white belly, belly, chalk area of grains, broken grains and whole grains free from defects. This machine is able to analyze rice samples and provide detailed information for each grain individually.
A sample of g of peeled rice was used; the sample was separated into different categories based on the proportion of grain chalkiness. The chalk area of the grains was calculated as the average ratio of the chalkiness area considering the surface of all grains in the sample g.
Whole grains free from defects were the grains that were completely translucent with no chalk. The experiment was a randomized block with a split plot design with three replications. There was a border around the entire experiment, and this was implemented at all three locations. Each subplot was composed of a different numbers of rows depending on the sowing arrangement used. Specifically, 26, 14 and 18 lines that were 10 m long corresponded to theand paired and cm row spacings, respectively.
Grains were harvested from the 17, 8 and 10 central lines of the plots with the and row spacings and and cm paired row spacings, respectively. The 50 cm at the ends of each line were not used for harvesting, resulting in useful plot areas of Results and discussion There were no significant interactions between the cultivars and planting arrangements for any experimental variable. This indicated that the different rice hybrids showed similar performance when the plant distribution was changed in the field.
The other commercial grain quality parameters shown in Table 1 indicate that the percentage of whole grains for the Arize Prime hybrid was higher by four percentage points compared with the other hybrids. These differences between hybrids are derived from intrinsic genetic characteristics because the Arize Prime hybrid normally has a higher percentage of whole grains and a smaller percentage of broken grains compared with the other hybrids this has been observed under various conditions. The total milling yield, i.
Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated lowland Rice. Agricultural Water Management, v. A uniform, objective and adaptive system for expressing rice development.
Crop Science Society of America, v.
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Genotypic variation for cold tolerance during reproductive development in rice: Screening with cold air and cold water. Field Crops Research, v. Low temperature induced spikelet sterility in rice. Effects of panicle and root temperatures. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, v.
Transpiration efficiency of rice Oryza sativa L. Considering that the regression for the dose of 7, kg ha-1 of biochar did not result in equation with significant parameters, the regression for the dose of 10, kg ha-1 indicates that MHG decreases with smaller N doses, but for doses higher than 43 kg ha-1, part of N was retained by biochar, positively impacting grain filling. In this respect, Yoseftabar noted that split application of the nitrogen fertilizer promoted higher grain mass, thereby increasing yields.
However, Barreto et al. According to Kischel et al.El experimento del arroz La energía existe, prueba científica
Nitrogen fertilization in combination with 0 and 10, kg ha-1 of biochar linearly positively affected panicle numbers in upland rice Figure 2 Cwhile the regressions for the other doses were not significant. Linear increase in the number of panicles per area of the same cultivar, BRS Sertaneja, was also observed by Barreto et al.
In contrast, Fabre et al. According to Buzetti et al. In a similar study, Mingotte, Hanashiro and Fornasieri Filho stated that variables related to panicles are determined by the application of nitrogen, e. As panicle number is determined during germination, it can only be increased by the application of nitrogen at the beginning of the growth cycle BUZETTI et al. The highest number of empty grains was observed when no biochar was added, in which case the doses of N has a quadratic impact and NEG reached maximum levels at 61 kg ha-1 of N Figure 2 D.
A dose of 3, kg ha-1 of biochar resulted in lower NEG levels than the dose zero and presented a point of maximum at 67 kg ha-1 of N. However, NEG increased linearly with increasing N doses. The quadratic increase in percentage of sterile spikelets of BRS Sertaneja as a function of the doses of N was also observed by Barreto et al.
The coal-free treatment demonstrates the isolated effect of N, where increased doses cause increase in sterility of spikelets up to a maximum level. This effect is attenuated with a dose of 3, kg ha-1 of biochar, due to partial N retention. However, with higher biochar doses, NEG increased linearly with increased N doses, due to a greater retention of nitrogen which is released slowly, maintaining an excess of N in the soil.
The lower fertility of rice spikelets due to increased N doses is related to the fact that this nutrient provides higher spikelet numbers per panicle. Decrease in spikelet sterility is one of the causes of the increase in yield when the application of N is split. Different results were obtained by Silva et al. The significant effect of N doses on the production of cowpea per pot Table 3 indicates that the dose of 90 kg ha-1 of N was detrimental to the crop.
In this respect, Oliveira et al. On the other hand, Dutra et al. This, according to Martins et al. Soil Chemical Characteristics Analysis of variance did not indicate significant effects for contents of Ca and Mg and for soil cation exchange capacity CEC.
Some beneficial characteristics of biochar as a soil conditioner are its high cation exchange capacity, high specific surface, and affinity for macro- and micronutrients. Joint regression analysis for the two seasons did not provide equations with significant parameters for soil chemical characteristics.
However, comparison of means Table 4 demonstrates that the values of pH, K, and CAMG decreased from the first to the second crops, which may be due to leaching of nutrients and their consumption by the crops. On the other hand, increases in CORG and P may be due to their greater availability to the soil; alternatively, the reaction of carbon with the soil allowed its detection by the methodology employed.
The increase in ESP was due to increased Na levels and decreases in calcium and magnesium. In a similar study by Carvalho et al. However, increases of soil P were observed by Chan et al. According to Madari et al. In a previous study by Petter et al. According to Sohi et al. Table 4 Comparison of means of soil chemical variables for both sampling dates and doses of biochar applied to the soil. However, there was no significant effect of N doses 30 and 60 kg ha-1 or the interaction between doses of carbon and of nitrogen.
Although Silva et al.
BIOCHAR AS SOIL CONDITIONER IN THE SUCCESSION OF UPLAND RICE AND COWPEA FERTILIZED WITH NITROGEN1
The increase in soil pH, as observed in this study, is the most quoted chemical change resulting from biochar application and is, according to Jeffery et al. The corrective effect of soil acidity, according to Verheijen et al. According to Wang et al. In this respect, a study of Petter et al. In a research by Streubel et al. In another study, Chan et al. The authors emphasized the use of biochar from cattle manure that promoted an increase in pH from 4.
In relation to increased soil K values during the duration of this experiment, Jeffery et al. Increased plant-available potassium through biochar application was also observed by Madari et al. Our results differ from those obtained by Petter et al. According to these authors, biochar contains considerable amounts of K and other nutrients. Increased soil K values were also observed by Carvalho et al. The increase in ESP after application of biochar was due to increased soil sodium values not presented and decreased calcium and magnesium values.
The observed reduction in the contents of calcium Ca and magnesium Mg of the soil, which could have been dislocated from the sites of exchange to the soil solution and then leached, is in accordance with results found by Silva et al.