Julie- the Outlaw- the Stronger (): August Strindberg: Books. Publisher: BiblioLife; Publishing date: ; Language: English. this eBook or online at edocki.info Title: Plays: The Father; Countess Julie; Author: August Strindberg Translator: Edith and Warner Oland Release Date: "The Stronger," than which no better example of Strindberg's uncanny power for One day when in the evolution of the drama Strindberg's technique shall. Plays - The Father, Countess Julie, the Outlaw, the Stronger (Hardcover) / Author: August Strindberg ; ; Literary studies, Literature: history.
August Strindberg - Wikipedia
He had the desire to become the national poet and felt that historical dramas were the way to attain that status. Though Strindberg claimed that he was writing "realistically," he freely altered past events and biographical information, and telescoped chronology. Works included the so-called Vasa Trilogy: This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message Strindberg was pivotal in the creation of chamber plays. Once Otto Brahm relinquished his role as head as of the Deutsches TheatreReinhardt took over and produced Strindberg's plays.
InStrindberg planned to write a grand cycle of plays based on world history, but the idea soon faded. He wrote another historical drama in after the Royal Theatre convinced him to put on a new play for its sixtieth birthday. A portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh August Falck, an actor, wanted to put on a production of Miss Julie and wrote to Strindberg for permission. In September he staged the first Swedish production of Miss Julie. The leader of the Social Democrat Youth Alliance started a fund-raiser for a special award.
In total there was 45, Swedish crowns collected, by more than 20, donors, most of whom were workers. He invited his first three children to Stockholm and divided the money into five shares, one for each child, one for Siri, and the other for himself.
He founded The Intimate Theatre in Stockholm in His theatre was modeled after Max Reinhart's Kammerspiel Haus. Strindberg had the intention of the theatre being used for his plays and his plays only, he also had the intention of the theatre being used mainly to perform chamber plays.
For the theatre's opening, Strindberg wrote four chamber plays: Strindberg had very specific ideas about how the theatre would be opened and operated. He drafted a series of rules for his theatre in a letter to August Falck: Short performances without intermissions.
The Stronger: A Play in One Act
Only seats in the auditorium. No orchestra, only music on stage. The text will be sold at the box office and in the lobby. Falck helped to design the auditorium, which was decorated in a deep-green tone. The ceiling lighting was a yellow silk cover which created an effect of mild daylight. The floor was covered with a deep-green carpet, and the auditorium was decorated by six ultra modern columns with elaborate up-to-date capitals.
Instead of the usual restaurant Strindberg offered a lounge for the ladies and a smoking-room for the gentlemen. The stage was unusually small, only 6 by 9 metres.
The small stage and minimal number of seats was meant to give the audience a greater feeling of involvement in the work. Unlike most theatres at this time, the Intima Teater was not a place in which people could come to socialize. By setting up his rules and creating an intimate atmosphere, Strindberg was able to demand the audience's focus. When the theatre opened in with a performance of The Pelican it was a rather large hit. Strindberg used a minimal technique, as was his way, by only having a back drop and some sea shells on the stage for scene design and props.
Strindberg was much more concerned with the actors portraying the written word than the stage looking pretty. The theatre eventually went bankrupt inbut did not close until Strindberg's death in The newspapers wrote about the theatre until its death; however, Strindberg felt it was entirely unsuccessful. He felt that he never had the opportunity to successfully stage a play the way he wanted to — which was the purpose of the theatre in the first place.
He also started to suffer from a stomach cancer. The last weeks of his life were painful, and the daily papers in Stockholm reported on his health in every edition. He received many letters and telegrams from admirers across the country.
He had given strict instructions concerning his funeral and how his body should be treated after death: Strindberg had also requested that his funeral should take place as soon as possible after his death to avoid crowds of onlookers. However, the workers' organisations requested that the funeral should take place on a Sunday to make it possible for working men to pay their respects, and the funeral was postponed for five days, until Sunday, 19 May. According to Strindberg's last wish, the funeral procession was to start at 8am, again to avoid crowds, but large groups of people were nevertheless waiting outside his home as well as at the cemetery, as early as 7am.
The procession was followed by groups of students, workers, and members of Parliament, and it was estimated that up to 60, people lined the streets. King Gustaf V sent a wreath for the bier.
His novel The Red Room made him famous. His early plays belong to the Naturalistic movement. His works from this time are often compared with the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Strindberg's best-known play from this period is Miss Julie.
Strindberg felt that true naturalism was a psychological "battle of brains": He intended his plays to be impartial and objective, citing a desire to make literature akin to a science. Following the inner turmoil that he experienced during the "Inferno crisis," he wrote an important book in French, Inferno —7 in which he dramatised his experiences.
He also exchanged a few cryptic letters with Friedrich Nietzsche. He is considered one of the pioneers of the modern European stage and Expressionism. He was admired by many as a far-left writer. He was a socialist or perhaps more of an anarchist, meaning a libertarian socialist, which he himself claimed on at least one occasion  . Strindberg's political opinions nevertheless changed considerably within this category over the years, and he was never primarily a political writer.
Nor did he often campaign for any one issue, preferring instead to scorn his enemies manifesto-style — the military, the churchthe monarchythe politicians, the stingy publishers, the incompetent reviewers, the narrow-minded, the idiots — and he was not loyal to any party or ideology. Many of his works, however, had at least some politics and sometimes an abundance of it. They often displayed that life and the prevailing system were profoundly unjust and injurious to ordinary citizens.
The changing nature of his political positions shows in his changing stance on the women's rights issue. Early on, Strindberg was sympathetic to women of 19th-century Sweden, calling for women's suffrage as early as However, during other periods he had strongly misogynistic opinions, calling for lawmakers to reconsider the emancipation of these "half-apes Strindberg's antisemitic pronouncements, just like his opinions of women, have been debated, and also seem to have varied considerably.
Many of these attitudes, passions and behaviours may have been developed for literary reasons and ended as soon as he had exploited them in books. This could take the form of brutal character disparagement or mockery, and while the presentation was generally skilful, it was not necessarily subtle. Painting and photography offered vehicles for his belief that chance played a crucial part in the creative process.
The paintings that are acknowledged as his were mostly painted within the span of a few years, and are now seen by some as among the most original works of 19th-century art. Though Strindberg was friends with Edvard Munch and Paul Gauguinand was thus familiar with modern trends, the spontaneous and subjective expressiveness of his landscapes and seascapes can be ascribed also to the fact that he painted only in periods of personal crisis. Anders Zorn also did a portrait.
The Father (Strindberg play) - Wikipedia
In the curious autobiographical work Inferno —a paranoid and confusing tale of his years in Paris, written in French—he claims to have successfully performed alchemical experiments and cast black magic spells on his daughter. Laura persuades the family doctor that Adolph may be mad, because, as an amateur scientist, he thinks he has discovered life on another planet by looking through a microscope. Adolph in fact has discovered signs of organic life by studying meteorites through a spectroscope.
Laura also reveals to the doctor that she has obtained a letter that Adolph once wrote confessing that he himself feared he might go mad.
Adolph becomes frustrated and responds with violence — he throws a burning lamp in the direction of his wife as she exits. The moment he does that, he is sunk. It appears that Laura has cunningly provoked him to commit this irrational act, which then becomes the pretext for having him committed. While waiting for the straitjacket to arrive, the pastor tells Laura she is incredibly strong. Not one incriminating spot of blood to give you away!
Laura is presented as having a stronger will than her husband, who says to her: The play shows a determined individual finding her way to oppose injustice, and the play also demonstrates how factors can lead one to become fiercely determined. Different religions, Methodist, Baptist, and an occult spiritualism, exist in the household and vie for Bertha's acceptance.
Zola felt that the naturalistic playwright should observe life very carefully, and render it in a documentary fashion. In creating character the playwright should be scientific and show that character is determined by heredity and environment.
And the playwright should apply understanding of psychology and physiology. Sets and costumes should be realistic, and the long expositions and complicated intrigues of romances and the "well-made play" should be avoided.