—Brewster Kahle, Founder, Internet Archive . The ceremonies of the Roman rite . by Fortescue, Adrian, Publication date The ceremonies of the Roman rite described / by Adrian Fortescue Fortescue, 1 online resource (xxx, pages). , English, Book, 2 & Possibly online. The Roman Rite (Latin: Ritus Romanus) is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, Such a book was referred to as a Missale Plenum (English: "Full Missal").
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Other early manuscripts such as the Ordines Romani contained detailed descriptions of the celebration of the Mass with the Pope in Rome. Those written accounts may have gradually served as instructions or rubrics for the celebration of Mass in other settings. Liturgical books grew as they passed from one community a local church, a diocese, a monastery, etc. The process of sharing text was by copying by hand. This was a laborious task which at times led to inconsistencies and errors.
The first true liturgical books which could be called "missals" were found in monasteries beginning around the 12th and 13th Centuries. A missale contained not only the prayers but the biblical readings, the chants, and the rubrics for the celebration of Mass.
It is difficult to trace exact origins of the first missal. It is also up to the priest, in the exercise of his office of presiding over the gathered assembly, to offer certain explanations that are foreseen in the rite itself.
Where it is indicated in the rubrics, the celebrant is permitted to adapt them somewhat in order that they respond to the understanding of those participating. However, he should always take care to keep to the sense of the text given in the Missal and to express it succinctly. The presiding priest is also to direct the word of God and to impart the final blessing. In addition, he may give the faithful a very brief introduction to the Mass of the day after the initial Greeting and before the Act of Penitenceto the Liturgy of the Word before the readingsand to the Eucharistic Prayer before the Prefacethough never during the Eucharistic Prayer itself; he may also make concluding comments to the entire sacred action before the dismissal.
The priest, in fact, as the one who presides, prays in the name of the Church and of the assembled community; but at times he prays only in his own name, asking that he may exercise his ministry with greater attention and devotion.
Prayers of this kind, which occur before the reading of the Gospel, at the Preparation of the Gifts, and also before and after the Communion of the priest, are said quietly.
The Other Formulas in the Celebration Finally, concerning the other formulas: Some constitute an independent rite or act, such as the Gloria, the responsorial Psalm, the Alleluia and verse before the Gospel, the Sanctus, the Memorial Acclamation, and the cantus post communionem song after communion ; Others accompany another rite, such as the chants at the Entrance, at the Offertory, at the fraction Agnus Deiand at Communion.
The Vocal Expression of the Different Texts In texts that are to be spoken in a loud and clear voice, whether by the priest or the deacon, or by the lector, or by all, the tone of voice should correspond to the genre of the text itself, that is, depending upon whether it is a reading, a prayer, a commentary, an acclamation, or a sung text; the tone should also be suited to the form of celebration and to the solemnity of the gathering.
Consideration should also be given to the idiom of different languages and the culture of different peoples. The Importance of Singing Great importance should therefore be attached to the use of singing in the celebration of the Mass, with due consideration for the culture of the people and abilities of each liturgical assembly.
Although it is not always necessary e. In the choosing of the parts actually to be sung, however, preference should be given to those that are of greater importance and especially to those to be sung by the priest or the deacon or the lector, with the people responding, or by the priest and people together. All other things being equal, Gregorian chant holds pride of place because it is proper to the Roman Liturgy.
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Other types of sacred music, in particular polyphony, are in no way excluded, provided that they correspond to the spirit of the liturgical action and that they foster the participation of all the faithful. The gestures and posture of the priest, the deacon, and the ministers, as well as those of the people, ought to contribute to making the entire celebration resplendent with beauty and noble simplicity, so that the true and full meaning of the different parts of the celebration is evident and that the participation of all is fostered.
A common posture, to be observed by all participants, is a sign of the unity of the members of the Christian community gathered for the sacred Liturgy: The faithful should stand from the beginning of the Entrance chant, or while the priest approaches the altar, until the end of the collect; for the Alleluia chant before the Gospel; while the Gospel itself is proclaimed; during the Profession of Faith and the Prayer of the Faithful; from the invitation, Orate, fratres Pray, brethrenbefore the prayer over the offerings until the end of Mass, except at the places indicated below.
They should, however, sit while the readings before the Gospel and the responsorial Psalm are proclaimed and for the homily and while the Preparation of the Gifts at the Offertory is taking place; and, as circumstances allow, they may sit or kneel while the period of sacred silence after Communion is observed.
In the dioceses of the United States of America, they should kneel beginning after the singing or recitation of the Sanctus until after the Amen of the Eucharistic Prayer, except when prevented on occasion by reasons of health, lack of space, the large number of people present, or some other good reason.
Those who do not kneel ought to make a profound bow when the priest genuflects after the consecration. The faithful kneel after the Agnus Dei unless the diocesan Bishop determines otherwise. Among gestures included are also actions and processions: It is appropriate that actions and processions of this sort be carried out with decorum while the chants proper to them occur, in keeping with the norms prescribed for each.
Sacred silence also, as part of the celebration, is to be observed at the designated times. Thus within the Act of Penitence and again after the invitation to pray, all recollect themselves; but at the conclusion of a reading or the homily, all meditate briefly on what they have heard; then after Communion, they praise and pray to God in their hearts.
Even before the celebration itself, it is commendable that silence to be observed in the church, in the sacristy, in the vesting room, and in adjacent areas, so that all may dispose themselves to carry out the sacred action in a devout and fitting manner.
The Introductory Rites The rites preceding the Liturgy of the Word, namely the Entrance, Greeting, Act of Penitence, Kyrie, Gloria, and collect, have the character of a beginning, introduction, and preparation. In certain celebrations that are combined with Mass according to the norms of the liturgical books, the Introductory Rites are omitted or performed in a particular way. After the people have gathered, the Entrance chant begins as the priest enters with the deacon and ministers.
The purpose of this chant is to open the celebration, foster the unity of those who have been gathered, introduce their thoughts to the mystery of the liturgical season or festivity, and accompany the procession of the priest and ministers. The singing at this time is done either alternately by the choir and the people or in a similar way by the cantor and the people, or entirely by the people, or by the choir alone.
Greeting of the Altar and of the People Gathered Together When they reach the sanctuary, the priest, the deacon, and the ministers reverence the altar with a profound bow.
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As an expression of veneration, moreover, the priest and deacon then kiss the altar itself; as the occasion suggests, the priest also incenses the cross and the altar. When the Entrance chant is concluded, the priest stands at the chair and, together with the whole gathering, makes the Sign of the Cross. Then he signifies the presence of the Lord to the community gathered there by means of the Greeting.
After the greeting of the people, the priest, the deacon, or a lay minister may very briefly introduce the faithful to the Mass of the day. The Act of Penitence Then the priest invites those present to take part in the Act of Penitence, which, after a brief pause for silence, the entire community carries out through a formula of general confession.
On Sundays, especially in the Season of Easter, in place of the customary Act of Penitence, from time to time the blessing and sprinkling of water to recall Baptism may take place. After the Act of Penitence, the Kyrie is always begun, unless it has already been included as part of the Act of Penitence. Since it is a chant by which the faithful acclaim the Lord and implore his mercy, it is ordinarily done by all, that is, by the people and the choir or cantor having a part in it.
As a rule, each acclamation is sung or said twice, though it may be repeated several times, by reason of the character of the various languages, as well as of the artistry of the music or of other circumstances. When the Kyrie is sung as a part of the Act of Penitence, a trope may precede each acclamation. The Gloria is a very ancient and venerable hymn in which the Church, gathered together in the Holy Spirit, glorifies and entreats God the Father and the Lamb. The text of this hymn may not be replaced by any other text.
The Gloria is intoned by the priest or, if appropriate, by a cantor or by the choir; but it is sung either by everyone together, or by the people alternately with the choir, or by the choir alone. If not sung, it is to be recited either by all together or by two parts of the congregation responding one to the other.
It is sung or said on Sundays outside the Seasons of Advent and Lent, on solemnities and feasts, and at special celebrations of a more solemn character. Next the priest invites the people to pray. Then the priest says the prayer which is customarily known as the collect and through which the character of the celebration is expressed.
In accordance with the ancient tradition of the Church, the collect prayer is usually addressed to God the Father, through Christ, in the Holy Spirit,  and is concluded with a trinitarian ending, that is to say the longer ending, in the following manner: If the prayer is directed to the Father: Per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum Through our Lord, Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, forever and ever ; If it is directed to the Father, but the Son is mentioned at the end: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus, per omnia saecula saeculorum Who lives and reigns with you and the Holy spirit, one God, forever and ever ; If it is directed to the Son: The people, uniting themselves to this entreaty, make the prayer their own with the acclamation, Amen.
There is always only one collect used in a Mass. The Liturgy of the Word The main part of the Liturgy of the Word is made up of the readings from Sacred Scripture together with the chants occurring between them.
The homily, Profession of Faith, and Prayer of the Faithful, however, develop and conclude this part of the Mass.
For in the readings, as explained by the homily, God speaks to his people,  opening up to them the mystery of redemption and salvation, and offering them spiritual nourishment; and Christ himself is present in the midst of the faithful through his word.
Finally, having been nourished by it, they pour out their petitions in the Prayer of the Faithful for the needs of the entire Church and for the salvation of the whole world. The Liturgy of the Word is to be celebrated in such a way as to promote meditation, and so any sort of haste that hinders recollection must clearly be avoided. During the Liturgy of the Word, it is also appropriate to include brief periods of silence, accommodated to the gathered assembly, in which, at the prompting of the Holy Spirit, the word of God may be grasped by the heart and a response through prayer may be prepared.
It may be appropriate to observe such periods of silence, for example, before the Liturgy of the Word itself begins, after the first and second reading, and lastly at the conclusion of the homily. Moreover, it is unlawful to substitute other, non-biblical texts for the readings and responsorial Psalm, which contain the word of God. In the celebration of the Mass with a congregation, the readings are always proclaimed from the ambo. By tradition, the function of proclaiming the readings is ministerial, not presidential.
The readings, therefore, should be proclaimed by a lector, and the Gospel by a deacon or, in his absence, a priest other than the celebrant. If, however, a deacon or another priest is not present, the priest celebrant himself should read the Gospel. Further, if another suitable lector is also not present, then the priest celebrant should also proclaim the other readings.
After each reading, whoever reads gives the acclamation, to which the gathered people reply, honoring the word of God that they have received in faith and with grateful hearts. The reading of the Gospel is the high point of the Liturgy of the Word.
The Fourth Lateran Council mandated that the reserved sacrament as well as the chrism, consecrated oil be kept under lock and key. In the 13th century, a special display stand for carrying a consecrated host in procession, the monstrance, came into use, and became more elaborately designed as the period progressed.
Liturgical Books A liturgical book is generally understood to be one that is actually used during a liturgical celebration, as opposed to one intended for reference, utilized to prepare or plan ahead of time, or offering commentary on the liturgy.
Examples of volumes that prove useful in providing historical background or theological insights on the liturgy include: Another influential factor is the reality that the Roman liturgy was not the only liturgical system in use during the early medieval period. Initially, different western rites, in this case referring to geographically defined traditions of liturgical uses, developed in several areas, including Rome, Benevento, and Milan the Ambrosian Rite in Italy, Spain the Mozarabic Riteand France the Gallican Rite, particularly in Francia, the early medieval kingdom of the Franks.
Beginning in the 7th century, the early Roman rite was diffused to many other areas of the western church and continued its development with lesser or greater local adaptation. This is especially true of the strong Gallican and later, Germanic influence on the shape and content of the Roman liturgy.
In the earliest period, there were a number of different collections or books used during the celebration of the Mass, the Divine Office, and other liturgical rites. With a few exceptions, the titles used for some of these books could vary. In later centuries, there was a pronounced tendency to compile individual volumes or small sets of volumes that were more comprehensive, containing in a single book, at least the minimum, if not most of the textual material required for that specific rite or by that specific presider.
In time, the nomenclature used for these liturgical books became more uniform: The Pontificale pontificalthe book for the bishop, containing the texts for the rites at which he was expected to preside; 3. The Breviarium breviarythe book s used by the major clergy as well as men and women members of religious orders for the daily celebration of the Divine Office.
Other liturgical books were also used, both in the earlier and later medieval periods, by others involved in liturgical activity, for example, those involved with liturgical music the choir or chanters or those charged with preparation for individual liturgical celebrations masters of ceremonies.
Some were more fully elaborated excerpts from one of the major liturgical books for use on specific occasions—for example, liturgical processions held at certain times of the year the Processionale. In addition, some liturgical books used by monastic communities would differ in a number of ways from those used by diocesan clergy or communities of canons associated with a cathedral. The Missal For the celebration of the Eucharist, or Mass the more common term in western Christianity, from the Latin missathe earliest prayer collections were composed of individual libelli, or booklets, containing the texts of Mass prayers, or formularies, for a particular day or feast.
While this collection is incomplete, and as a volume may not have functioned as a sacramentary itself, it is a valuable source for understanding the spirituality and development of the Roman liturgy in the earliest part of the medieval period. Next, copies of these collections of libelli would be produced as entire books, the sacramentaries. Initially, these sacramentaries contained the public prayer texts the orationes used by the priest or bishop presiding at the Mass at the opening of Mass, at the offertory, and after communion.
In Roman use, these prayers tended to be brief, succinct, and stylized in phrasing and construction. Sacramentaries could also contain more liturgical material, texts for the celebration of other rituals that would later be moved into the pontifical or the ritual. During the 8th century, elements from both Roman and Frankish use resulted in a mixed sacramentary tradition, called the Gelasian tradition once attributed to Pope Gelasius I.
The first exemplar is the Old Gelasian Gelasianum Vetus ; the earliest manuscript dates from about the year ce and may have been produced near Paris. At first, most 20th-century editors hypothesized that this sacramentary was based on a lost Roman presbyteral book, used not by the pope but by the clergy in charge of the numerous smaller church communities in Rome, the tituli title churches.
More recently, some have challenged this assumption, proposing instead that the Old Gelasian was the work of Frankish Merovingian compilers using both Roman and Frankish sources, and stressing the importance of political factors in its shaping.
In the latter part of the 8th century, the reigning king of the Franks, Charlemagne also regarded as the first of the Holy Roman Emperors requested a copy of a Roman sacramentary from Pope Hadrian d.
This sacramentary, known as the Hadrianum traditionally attributed to Pope Gregory Ibecame the basis for another textual family, that of the Gregorian sacramentaries. Eventually the texts in the supplement were integrated into the main text, and other material was added. It is this Gregorian sacramentary tradition that formed the core of what became the later Missale Romanum.
Like the libelli missarum, similar collections of descriptions of how to perform various liturgical rites were also gathered in Rome. A number of these ordines dealt with the Mass particularly papal Massesbut others were to be used for other liturgical celebrations, some of which along with the Eucharist would come to be classified as sacraments primary liturgical rites in the 12th century, for example, baptism.
Others dealt with wider patterns of liturgical celebrations—for example, Holy Week—or liturgical rites that, while remaining part of the Roman liturgy, would not appear on the later medieval list of the seven sacraments, for example, funeral rites.
Still others contain directories of material to be used at the Divine Office. Beginning in the 9th century, this ordo Missae began to be elaborated by the interpolation of other ritual elements, including gestures, versicles and responses, longer psalmody, and private prayers many of them apologiae, penitential in tone for the presider to recite at several points during the Mass.
Examples include the preparation for Mass for instance, prayers to accompany the donning of individual liturgical vestmentsduring the chants of antiphons or responses like the Introit, the Kyrie, or the Gloriaor during the communion rite.
This development seems to have taken place in roughly three stages; the last, the Rhenish type during the early 11th century, is marked by several very florid ordines missae, which present what amounts to a private, parallel rite for the bishop- or priest-presider interwoven with the public structure and prayers of the Mass itself.
The readings at Mass were originally marked in the margins of copies of the New Testament or Bible. Further, the epistle and gospel readings could be reproduced in two separate books, the epistolary and the evangeliary.
All of the western rites had their own lectionaries at this time; the eventual list that makes its way into the various forms of the later medieval full missal Missale plenum in the Roman rite is a Frankish-Roman hybrid. At the end of the 11th century, Pope Gregory VII initiated a liturgical reform aimed at purifying this Roman liturgy from excessive Teutonic elements.
This marked the effective end of the elaborate ordines missae used in parts of France and Germany, although some of the apology-type prayer elements, for example, the Confiteor, remained as part of the ordo missae through the end of the medieval period and beyond.
The general tendency during later medieval centuries was for the consolidation of liturgical books into single volumes designed for the use of a priest-presider either for a private Mass or a more public Mass. In the 13th century, the liturgical books for the growing papal curia were streamlined to take into account their increasing administrative duties. These were the books adopted by the one of the new mendicant orders, the Franciscans, due in part to their more active urban ministry and their non-monastic, mobile way of religious life.
As might be expected, the use of the printing press in the following century had an immense impact on the eventual uniformity of the Roman liturgy. A print edition of the Missale Romanum, based on the 14th-century Missal of the Roman curia, was published in This was this edition that, combined with a redaction of the Mass rubrics prepared in the first years of the 16th century by John Burchard Ordo servandus per sacerdotem in celebration Missae sine cantu and sine ministris secundum ritum S.
Ecclesiae Romanae, would form the basis of the edition prepared after the Council of Trent — To eliminate errors, clerical improvisations, and confusion among the laity during the turbulent Reformation period, Pope Pius V mandated this new edition, the Missale Romanum for all Roman Catholic communities, with the exception of diocese and religious orders whose Eucharistic rites were two hundred years old or older, who had the option to retain them.
Several religious orders opted to retain their Missals, including older monastic orders like the Carthusians and the Cistercians, and newer orders of mendicants and canons like the Dominicans and the Premonstratensians Norbertines. The Pontifical The pontifical seems to have undergone at least some of the same stages of development as the missal. First, libelli containing the prayer texts for individual rituals conducted by the bishop were collected from other sources including sacramentaries and ordines and compiled into more complete volumes, which could also contain texts for various blessings that a bishop might be called upon to bestow.
These earliest pontificals, all dated after ce, would also contain other material that would be later transferred to the rituale, or manual of other rites for the use of a priest; pontifical rituals would eventually be excluded from this presbyteral volume. Included in the pontifical were, for instance, rites for confirmation and ordination, coronation rites, rites for the reconciliation of penitents and for the consecration of a cemetery, and blessings for use at Mass and Office.
There are several examples of early medieval pontificals dating from the 9th and 10th centuries. One midth century text, a hybrid Roman-Germanic pontifical, was produced in Mainz, a key diocese in the Holy Roman Empire. Political influence accelerated its rapid spread north of the Alps and its acceptance in Rome.
During the late 13th and 14th centuries, this pontifical came into contact with another Pontifical, compiled and edited by of the bishop of Mende southern FranceWilliam Durandus d. Durandus used earlier Roman pontificals as well as local sources for his Pontifical, and it was this version of the Pontifical with minor editing by papal secretaries and masters of ceremonies Agostino Piccolomini and John Burchard that became the first printed edition of the Roman Pontifical A later printed edition by Alberti Castellani, became the text used for the Roman Pontifical issued after the Council of Trent The Rituale In the early medieval period, there was no one single book containing all of the non-eucharistic liturgical texts over which priests would preside.
Like the sacramentary and the pontifical, the texts of many individual rites were first produced in booklet form, the libellus, a practice for ritual texts that continued through the high Middle Ages. Other blessing prayers benedictiones could also be listed among these other ritual materials.
For instance, a French monastic volume, dating from about the year ce, contains both a psalter as well as a ritual section which in turn includes several benedictiones as well as an ordo missae. Beginning in the 12th century, these presbyteral texts began to be collected in a separate book, the Rituale sometimes entitled Sacerdotale, Manuale, or Agenda. Here, priest- presiders could find the texts for these other liturgical rites, which were part of their ministry: Lists of blessings for various persons and religious objects also included, for example, the blessing of candles or palms.
Monastic ritual collections often included other rites proper to monasteries abbatial blessings, profession of monastic vows and omitted others that might be not within the scope of their pastoral care like baptism, or the purification and blessing of women after childbirth. At times, the contents of these ritual collections would be altered by canonical legislation. For example, the Fourth Lateran Council prohibited priests from taking part in what were known as trials by ordeal.