1Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said students' values, and finding the relationship between faculty staff. Student-instructor relationships in nursing education. female faculty members may exert power over students, causing students to feel threatened, powerless. coping, student-student and faculty-student relationships, and levels of academic civility. While civility Keywords: civility; coping; incivility; nursing students; stress ; student-faculty relationships Published ahead of print date: May 8,
After the researcher and co-analyst analysed the data independently, a meeting was scheduled to reach consensus on the themes and categories that emerged from the data collected. Context of the study The study was conducted in a private nursing educational institute NEI in the North West Province, and this consequently forms the context of the study.
The NEI offers the enrolled nursing auxiliary course for a period of 1 year. There are two intakes of 40 enrolled nursing auxiliary students per year. The staffing includes one principal, two tutors, two clinical tutors, one enrolled nursing auxiliary, one administrative assistant and one cleaner. The NEI is an accredited nursing education institution. The demographic profile of enrolled nursing auxiliaries is that they are mostly black females between the ages of years, distributed from all over South Africa.
Applicants must have at least a grade 10 certificate. Ethical considerations The researcher obtained ethical clearance from the North-West University's ethics committee before conducting the study to ensure that all ethical considerations have been adhered to.
The researcher also obtained permission from the institution where the research was conducted. Potential benefits and hazards Participants were informed that they might experience slight emotional discomfort due to their participation. A professional counsellor was on standby for debriefing and support. Ground rules to discuss confidentiality were discussed with the participants before the onset of data collection. Data were collected in a private, comfortable venue.
Recruitment procedure An information session was held with prospective participants to inform them about the study as well as to explain the concept of resilience before the commencement of data collection. Informed consent The researcher obtained voluntary informed written consent from the prospective participants. Participants were given time to consider the invitation, and the researcher emphasised that they could withdraw or abstain at any time without discrimination or prejudice.
No participant was manipulated or forced to participate in the study. Data protection No personal details of participants were revealed in any reports, and the privacy of participants was respected throughout the study.
The data are being stored on a password-protected computer and in a locked cupboard, and will be destroyed after a period of 7 years.
Student-instructor relationships in nursing education.
Rigour The researcher ensured that the study complied with the criteria for trustworthiness namely: In this study, the researcher ensured truth value by obtaining the experiences as it is lived and perceived by the participants, which reflects the credibility of the findings. According to Lincoln and Gubamember checks is used as a technique to establish credibility.Dating In Nursing School
The researcher used a feedback and discussion session where participants had the opportunity to reflect on data collected which ensured that participants' views were accurately recorded. A technique used to establish transferability is thick description.
According to Thomas and Brubakerthick description allows the reader to enter the research context. With regard to transferability, the researcher presented the data sufficiently and descriptively to make it possible for another to make a comparison if needed.
Consistency checks included having an independent coder checking the category descriptions and text belonging in those categories. The researcher made use of a feedback session where the table host had the opportunity to report on ideas and comments written down on the posters, to verify and clarify the data collected.
Lincoln and Guba deemed that a confirmable study is objective. The researcher reached confirmability through ensuring that the findings, conclusions and recommendations were supported by data obtained and the link between the researcher's interpretation and actual events. Findings could not be generalised, but the research process is discussed in detail so that the application of this research in a similar context will be possible. In order to further ensure trustworthiness, the researcher used multiple data sources to integrate the findings and existing literature.
Results Five main themes emerged from the data, which could be divided into categories see Figure 1. Participants reported that the physical environment of the school needs to be neat and tidy. With regard to the availability of resources participants reported a strong need for a computer laboratory in the school to accommodate all students. Students want to have comfort breaks and fun through and between lessons.
They want to play games to refresh their minds, body and souls even doing exercises before class. Participants stated that the class needs to have a comfortable environment with fresh air.
The windows must be open, or the air-conditioning must be switched on. The rest rooms also need to be easy accessible for the students to prevent students from missing a lot of work while using the restrooms or going out to drink water.
For them, such basic elements are important to improve the relationship between the educator and student. The participants mentioned, for example: Data collection method was a once-off group discussion Participants reported that the emotional environment included effective problem-solving, effective interaction, co-operation, transparency, mutual respect, honesty and openness, freedom of expression, integrity and no discrimination.
Students feel that the more they are willing to interact the more they get to know each other. They believe that through being open towards their educator, the educator will be able to discover problems and thereby help them to solve it. Through effective interaction, the educator and student understand each other better, improving the educator-student relationship.
So you cannot expect your educator to help you if you also don't make an effort". Once-off group discussion Theme 2: Educator-student interaction The educator-student interaction is divided into three main categories, namely, interaction that is constructive, interaction that acknowledges human rights and interaction that makes use of appropriate non-verbal communication.
Participants reported that they need interaction that is constructive and which included that the nurse educator is approachable, respectful, friendly, patient, professional, civil, adaptable, helpful and non-threatening.
The educator needs to respect students in order for them to respect him or her. Students believe that the educator must be patient because their pace in learning differs.
For example, as participant reported: Once-off group discussion Participants furthermore mentioned a desire for interaction that acknowledges human rights such as equality, freedom of expression, one-on-one communication, introspection, privacy and confidentiality, group work, participation and language that all can understand.
The following words of a participants illustrate this finding: Once-off group discussion and: That means you must be able to go forward and know where you want to grow in although you don't know where you are going to, but you know where you coming from". Once-off group discussion Interaction that makes use of appropriate non-verbal communication includes the use of appropriate body language and tone of voice.
The educator must make use of appropriate body language which is non-discriminating and friendly, thereby creating an open and accessible learning environment. A participant shared the following: Once-off group discussion Theme 3: Educator and student qualities The category educator qualities refer to the qualities an educator needs to display to improve the relationship with students.
During data analysis two categories emerged from data namely qualities of the educator and qualities of students. Participants expected the educator to display qualities of love and care, respect, responsibility, morality, patience, open to new ideas, motivated, willing to "go the extra mile" and punctuality.
The educator must be friendly and positive". Once-off group discussion Participants expected of themselves as students to demonstrate versatility, be prepared for classes, pay attention in class, show gratitude to educators and take initiative. Once-off group discussion Theme 4: Managing to stay resilient Participants reported various ways how they manage to stay resilient.
This included being positive. Participants mentioned that they need to be positive by acknowledging and accepting the situation they're in including being adaptable, for example: Once-off group discussion Having a support system was another way to stay resilient.
This refers to students seeking support or help from churches, clinics for counselling and social workers. Some participants also mentioned that they seek help from their educator. Once-off group discussion Changing study methods was also seen as a way to stay resilient.
Participants who do not perform well said that they needed to change their study methods.
Student-instructor relationships in nursing education.
For example, they either study in groups or have one-on-one sessions with their educator, as evident from the following quote: Once-off group discussion Participants also said they manage to stay resilient by motivating themselves to be productive having a positive approach to life and finding ways to solve any misunderstandings or problems and always keeping their morale high.
Participants said that they talk to people who experience similar problems and never allow anyone to make them feel inferior because they are special. Once-off group discussion In addition, participants managed to stay resilient by setting personal goals for themselves. Participants also mentioned that they do not compare them with others because everyone is different in their own unique way.
They believe in having faith and courage in themselves help them to stay resilient. The following quote illustrates this finding: Once-off group discussion Another way to stay resilient is being proud and taking pride in what students have achieved or what they are going to achieve at the end.
Once-off group discussion In using perseverance and determination, students think positively about themselves. Look at things from a positive perspective". Once-off group discussion Theme 5: Strategies to strengthen resilience In the last theme, participants reflected on strategies or suggestions nurse educators can use to help them strengthen their resilience as nursing students. Two categories emerged from the data. Participants reported strategies that educators can implement, namely giving extra lessons when needed, one-on-one sessions with students when needed, giving students an opportunity to participate and interact in classes, giving appropriate reward for doing well or improving and mutual respect between educators and students.
Participants also mentioned strategies students can implement, namely, using different study methods can improve their resiliency skills, using mind mapping to study, creating songs on the material of the module to help them remember, making use of group study, doing research and making use of different sources. Discussion The results are discussed by providing an outline of the results and by referring to practical implications.
Outline of the results It is evident that certain basic elements need to be in place to ensure that the educator-student relationship remains effective and that the resilience of students is strengthened. The first element in the relationship is the environment. This environment includes both the physical and emotional components in teaching-learning. Students need a caring and supportive environment including enough space, lighting and ventilation, as well as warmth, support, caring and trust.
The second element is interaction between the educator and student. Students reported that they need interaction that is constructive, interaction that acknowledges human rights and interaction that makes use of appropriate non-verbal communication.
Such interactional processes, also mentioned by Kumpher include role modelling, teaching, giving advice, empathetic and emotionally responsive caregiving, creating opportunities for meaningful involvement, effective supervision and disciplining, and reasonable developmental expectations. The third element of the relationship qualities refers to both the educator and student.
Students mentioned that the educator must display qualities such as love and care, being respectful, responsible, moral, patient, and open to new ideas.
In addition, students stated that their own qualities should include versatility, being prepared for classes, paying attention in class, showing gratitude to educators and initiative. Therefore, it seems that strengthening both the educator and students' internal characteristics will improve the educator-student relationship and promote positive and successful academic outcomes.
Similar views could be found in literature. Caring and supportive educators create qualitatively different classroom environments that feel warm, encourage students to behave in responsible ways and emphasise learning over performing Davis Also, students who believe in their own effectiveness and who take initiative contribute to their own motivation, skills and success Hupfeld Resilience is also a crucial element in the educator-student relationship.
Students reported on various ways how they manage to stay resilient, namely: Similarly, Hupfeld stated that educators play a very important role in students' lives by modelling resilience skillos.
Practical implications Through forming strong, caring and supportive relationships, educators contribute to students feeling safer and more secure in the educational setting, feeling more competent, making more positive connections and improving academic outcomes.
Creating a caring and supportive environment where learning can take place not only improve the relationship but also have a positive effect on the students' academic performance and resilience. Educators that build effective relationships with students and create a positive learning climate establish an atmosphere characterised by mutual support, caring and understanding, all of which are foundational to a sound educator-student relationship.
Resilient students who have positive attitudes believe that when they try, they will succeed. Academic success and resilience are fostered by the development of good study strategies and self-regulation of academic work. Nurse educators should strengthen the resilience of nursing students by being a role model for them. To become excellent, caring and responsible nurses, students need to understand the importance of effective interpersonal relationships, something that will impact the rest of their nursing career.
Limitations of the study The researchers acknowledge that this research is limited to only one private nursing education institution and that the findings cannot be generalised.
Sampling was carried out with maximum variance enhancing data confirm ability, dependability, and transferability Sandelowski, The oral consent was taken from the participants before the interviews. They were assured that their statements would remain confidential. Results Data analysis resulted in primary codes, 15 categories and 6 themes. Of such criteria are paying attention to teaching methods and using educational technology to help them make lesson-based material understood. As one teacher said: One of the experienced instructors said: For instance they perform specialized nursing researches to enhance their knowledge: One of the instructors stated: Instructors see this as one of the ways to promote nursing profession: Such criteria include attending cultural meetings and boosting their cultural aspect of personality.
This One of the features paid attention by the participants was to motivate the students: This in fact could help them in developing critical thinking: Moral values are considered very important by instructors and students: One of the instructors said: One of the students said: In sum, the study demonstrated that the majority of nurse instructors and students had almost the same perception and experience concerning professional competency of nurse instructors.
Discussion This study revealed that the experiences of nurse instructors and students about professional competency involve special domains and characteristics including: The feelings and perceptions pointed out are the reflection of two classes of experiences, perceptions and feelings of the instructors and those of the students that in most cases similar ideas were observed.
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- 1. Introduction
Arbon stated experience as the unique and distinct events that an individual acquires during a complicated process called meaning making. We observed our findings consistent with Parsayekta et al. In mentioned studies, the importance of concepts in basic courses, presenting material in a logical manner and teaching in a simple language that are related to the same theme have not been dealt with.
In the present study, nursing lecturers and students have pointed out knowledge, high level of capability in teaching, being up-to-date, and attending the class with sufficient information as the main characteristics of a competent nursing instructor.
However, that study did not include effective clinical training. Mandira, Farouk and Abdulbari also found knowledge and proficiency as the main qualities of an ideal instructor. Bagheri-Nesami, Rafiei, Parvizi and Esmaeili in their research described theoretical knowledge as a significant factor for promoting clinical instruction competency and introduced it as a catalyst.
In their research, in addition to theoretical knowledge, experience was observed as the most influential factor in acquiring clinical competency which is created by practice and repetition, which is in line with our findings. Their study showed that feeling responsible for the students and supporting them could play an important role in the communication between instructors and students. It is believed that nurses do not receive enough social and political supports.
We believe self-confidence is of the factors influencing the level of using learning opportunities. Other studies also found similar results Eraut et al. The concept of competency in nursing is manifested through acquiring and developing educational, managerial, cultural, moral, research, and individual skills and then evaluated based on these factors.
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Exploring this concept through qualitative studies could highly benefit nursing fields both educational and clinical. The present qualitative study only provides the perspectives of a group of nursing students within the Iranian culture and context. Therefore, the transferability of findings should be considered with caution and critiqued and compared with those of similar studies conducted in other contexts. Further studies in different cultures and contexts should be conducted to help us recognize various aspects of professional competency of nursing academic staff.
Conclusion This study resulted in discovering the real meaning of professional competency among the nursing faculty staff. As stated competent instructors are those who make efforts to provide effective education, increase the research capability of oneself and that of the students, enhance managerial competency, are cultural and behavioral role models, motivate and nurture the students, and boost mastership values and disposition while these efforts are simultaneously perceived by the students.
This definition is different from the definitions presented in other qualitative studies. The present research is the result of a survey based on real experiences and perceptions of the main groups involved in nursing field, therefore, the findings could be utilized in designing assessment tools for professional competency of nursing academic staff in nursing schools and other medical fields.