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At the Moscow Conference of Communist Parties in NovemberMao contradicted Khrushchev's line that no one could win a nuclear war. He said that such a war would not be the end of the world, because half its population would survive. From other statements by Mao, it is clear he thought that a large part of the huge Chinese population would survive an atomic war. However, both leaders tried to keep up an appearance of good relations.
The first open Sino-Soviet clash over foreign policy came in However, three days later, when Khrushchev was on a visit to Beijing, he withdrew the conference proposal, probably to conciliate Mao. It is clear from recently published Chinese documents that Mao launched the attack on purpose to show his independence of the USSR. Khrushchev wrote a letter to President Eisenhower supporting China and even brandishing the nuclear threat. It is equally clear, however, that Khrushchev's "nuclear threat" was to serve as a demonstration of his support for China - not of readiness to fight the United States.
In fact, he did what he coule to defuse the crisis. In any case, the show of U. In Septemberthere were border clashes between the PRC and India, and the Soviets called on both sides to desist, which Mao saw as a betrayal.
Even worse from Mao's point of view, was Khrushchev's behavior when he visited Beijing on September 30 that year after his visit to the United States. During a formal banquet in his honor, Khrushchev attacked those who wanted to test the stability of the capitalist system - meaning a war with the United States.
Thus, he criticized Mao's risk-taking in the Taiwan Straits' crisis. Also, Khrushchev now supported the seating of both Chinas in the United Nations: To add insult to injury, at the Romanian Party Congress in Bucharest in JuneKhrushchev openly attacked the PRC leaders as "madmen" who wanted to unleash nuclear war.
In July, he decided to withdraw all Soviet experts from China. As we know, this included the experts who were helping the PRC develop its own nuclear bomb. Shortly thereafter, Khrushchev reneged on the promise of giving the Chinese a sample bomb, thus delaying its production by China for several years. Zhou not only insisted that all Communist Parties were equal -- thus implicitly denying the Soviet claim to leadership of the world communist movement -- but also expressed the PRC's independent position by laying a wreath at Stalin's grave by the Kremlin wall.
Khrushchev had removed Stalin's body from the mausoleum, where it had lain alongside of Lenin's since This war broke out over disputed territories, but was characterized by considerable Chinese restraint. In Januarythe Chinese and Soviet press began a public exchange of recriminations. Among other things, they included the statement that "The present-day Soviet Union is a dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, a dictatorship of the big bourgeoisie, a dictatorship like German fascism, a Hitler-type of dictatorship; they are a pack of ruffians, even worse than De Gaulle.
He reminded them that over the last hundred years, Russia had seized the area east of Lake Baikal from China and that the Chinese had still not "billed" Russia for it.
Thus, bySino-Soviet relations were very bad indeed. In FebruaryMao suddenly launched a campaign for freedom of speech, though "within the bounds of discipline. Interpretations differ as to what he expected from this; did he really expect to find out what people were thinking, or was his encouragement of criticism directed at abuses with the goal of using this criticism as a weapon against the party leaders he wished to remove?
Or was he perhaps concerned that Chinese intellectuals might follow the path of the Hungarians? Revolution of October-November Mao's long-time doctor, Li Zhisui claims in his memoirs that Mao used the campaign to "rectify" or purge the party. He did not trust it; therefore, he turned outside for criticism. Li writes that Mao also distrusted intellectuals, but thought that few would be critical of him so most would play along with his game.
When the intellectuals remained quiet, Mao repeated his message in March What happened next was a revelation. Once the press was allowed to publish criticism of the party, that lattert was even attacked as an institution and its right to rule was questioned.
Indeed, even Mao himself was criticised. Li writes that "Mao was shocked. Li writes that Mao often retired to bed at times of crisis to think out his response. I have three rules: First, I follow the ancient philosopher Laozi. I, the father, do not initiate action. When under attack, I retreat, doing nothing, remaining silent. We let the enemy feel he has scored a few points. Thus, Mao decided to launch a campaign against the "rightists.
Then we will strike. This experience disillusioned many communist intellectuals, including a famous future dissident, the physicist Fang Lizhi. It is also significant that one of the leaders of this attack on the "rightists" was Deng Xiaoping b.
He survived to succeed Mao, began a great economic reform inand was to crush the Chinese democratic movement in June InMao launched a new economic policy: This meant the reorganization of state and collective farms into huge communes.
Furthermore, the peasants in these communes were ordered not only to work the land, but also to make their own tools out of the iron that they were to smelt into steel.
What were Mao's goals? He said he wanted to establish a "free supply system," i. He also said that China must catch up with Gt. Britain in fifteen years. Some historians speculate that the creation of large militia forces in the communes was to provide Mao with a weapon he could use against moderate CPR leaders. The latter, after all, controlled the army, favored slower reforms, and wished for improved relations with the USSR. Whatever the case may be, by Januarythe militia numbered about million, or one-third of the entire population.
It seems, however, that the militia was a by-product of the GLF. The Great Leap Forward turned out to be a great disaster. The peasants could not smelt iron into steel for tools in their backyard furnaces.
At the same time, this work took away the time needed to work the land, so that crops rotted in the fields. After a wave of initial enthusiasm, they reacted badly to the loss of all individual incentives as well as personal and familial freedoms. Furthermore, the extreme decentralization of economic control not only led to chaotic distribution, but also helped mask huge shortfalls in production that local units were too afraid to report.
All these factors were aggravated by bad weather, which led to crop failure in several provinces. The combined result of political and natural factors was widespread famine, resulting in millions of deaths. Some estimates go as high as 30 million out of a population of some million, i. Strict rationing had to be imposed inand this helped to reduce the loss of life.
Li Zhisui wrote later about the beginnings of this catastrophe: China was struck with a mass hysteria fed by Mao, who then fell victim himself. Mao began believing the slogans, casting caution to the winds. Mini-steel mills were being set up even in Zhongnanhai the former "Forbidden City," or imperial palace grounds in Beijing where Mao lived and key offices were located, A. Cand at night the whole compound was a sea of red light.
The idea had originated with the Central Bureau of Guards, but Mao did not oppose them, and soon everyone was stoking the fires - cadres, clerks, secretaries, doctors, nurses, and me. The rare voices of caution were being stilled. Everyone was hurrying to jump on the utopian bandwagon. What those men really thought, we never will know.
Everyone was caught in the grip of this utopian hysteria. In one region the First Party Secretary had ordered rice to be transplanted to that Mao would see it on his route. In another, a brand new furnace had been brought in to the Commune from a factory.
Likewise, the high production figures given out by the communes' "good news reporting stations" were faked. Every provincial party leader wanted to please Mao and avert accusations of slacking. When disasters truck, "no one, not even the closest to him, dared to speak.
Nevertheless, he still thought the GLF line was right and did not want to dampen the enthusiasm of the people. However, by fallthere was criticism of the GLF by some members of the the party leadership.
Some historians have theorized that Khrushchev might have encouraged Peng to attack Mao and then establish a new leadership more friendly to the USSR. Others, however, stress Peng's genuine alarm after visiting his own part of the country, and seeing the catastrophic famine there.
He did not take part in this, but waited.
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Peng Dehuai sent him a personal letter stressing the disastrous situation in China. Indeed, Li Zhisui writes that by the end ofa large part of the huge harvest lay rotting in the fields because the peasants, busy with their "backyard furnaces" - producing useless iron ingots from their pots and pans - did not have the strength to harvest the crops. Also, the provinces which had declared exaggerated crop figures had to give a much larger percent of their real produce as taxes to the state.
Infood shortages were on the rise in towns and there was famine in some parts of China. Mao heard of this state of affairs not only from Peng Dehuai, but also from personal emissaries he had sent out to investigate the situation and who reported honestly what they saw. Nevertheless, while Mao acknowledged errors in the execution of the GLF at Lushan, he still insisted that the "general line" was correct and that criticism of it was "bourgeois.
This fitted in with his criticism of Khrushchev's policy in the USSR as "bourgeois" - and we should note that Khrushchev had strongly criticized the GLF, especially the huge communes. Whatever the case may be, it is clear that Mao identified the GLF "general line" with his own prestige and authority. Although he had resigned the chairmanship of the CPP to Liu Shaoqithis was a move agreed on earlier. Mao remained chairman of the PRC, and had no intention of giving up power. Therefore, after allowing free discussion, he attacked Peng Dehuai and his supporters as "bourgeois democrats.
Mao also said that if the party split in two, he would found a new one among the peasants, and if the army split apart, he would raise a new one. Peng was arrested inand died in prison in Various dates are used to date the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. Some historians date it from the failure of GLF, i. In fact, although the greatest turmoil took place in the yearsthe GCR had its roots in the failure of the GLF and the subsequent criticism of Mao at the Lushan party summit, while Mao took the more steps toward it in Background to the Cultural Revolution.
While foreign policy played a part, it is clear that internal CCP disputes were more important than external questions in spurring Mao's attack on his rivals. Like most party bureaucrats, all three wished to follow moderate economic policies, avoiding a repetition of such disasters as Mao's GLF.
In fact, there was much discussion of the economy in early In January of that year, Mao again acknowledged that he bore the primary responsibility for the mistakes of Central Committee, i. Furthermore, a party committee of investigation confirmed the criticisms made by Peng Dehuai in At an enlarged Politburo meeting in Februaryeven the veteran bureaucrat Chen Yun b. He even suggested that land be redistributed to peasant households, though he agreed with Deng Xiaoping that this would mean the restoration of private farming.
In July, Deng made the famous statement that "[W]hether cats are white or black, so long as they catch mice, they are all good cats. Thus, as in Poland, Hungary, and to a limited extent in the USSR, so also in China, Deng and other like-minded party leaders realized as early asthat the old Stalinist economic model - particlarly as it had been adapted by Mao - was unsatisfactory and needed reform.
However, by SeptemberMao began to oppose the suggested reforms. He justified his opposition by stressing the permanence of "class struggle. Mao also warned against Soviet-style "revisionism," by which he meant Khrushchev's attacks on Stalin and Stalinism.
Finally, he said that the real successors of revolution would come from among China's youth. In his words, they "come forward in mass struggles and are tempered in the great storms of revolution. Meanwhile, a new problem arose for the CPR with the beginning of active U. The question for the CCP now was: Clearly, the CPR could not support the United States, but neither did it want to see the growth of Soviet influence in the region.
In springthere was an important debate on this issue within CCP leadership over the possibility of another world war, or of peaceful coexistence with capitalist states, and of the extent of Chinese support of national liberation movements, particularly in Vietnam. Foreign policy specialists advocated peaceful coexistence, but Mao chose confrontation.
This "turn to the left" in foreign policy also accorded with Mao's stress on class struggle and radical policies in Chinese domestic affairs. According to some China experts, this decision also meant a lost opportunity to prevent later Sino-American hostility in Indochina. However, he was opposed by Lin Biao who spoke for Mao. In fact, although the CPR allowed Soviet railway transit to North Vietnam, this transit was often impeded by slowing the trains.
Therefore, the Soviets were compelled to send most of their military supplies to North Vietnam by sea from Vladivostok to Haiphong. The CPR sent aid also, but it was in the form of small arms, machine guns, bicycles, and railway construction crews, who helped rebuild the track destroyed by U.
On the Vietnam War, see ch. Thus, we should see both the internal debate on economic development, and the debate on the Vietnam war, as factors leading to the Great Cultural Revolution. This term is totally inadequate to describe the turmoil that engulfed China ina turmoil that sometimes verged on civil war.
In the course of the GCR, the party apparatus was almost destroyed; defense capabilities were severely weakened, and higher education was set back by about 10 years. In any case, the GCR had a profoundly traumatic effect on the people of China, especially party members and intellectuals, just as the Stalin purges had in the USSR in the period As in the USSR, so too Chinese literature was later to portray the turmoil and suffering involved, though much of it was to be published outside of China.
There are different interpretations of how and why this terrible upheaval came about. Was it caused, as Mao claimed, by his desire to rid the party of its bureaucratization, oligarchic structure, and its economic "revisionism," in order to restore communist egalitarianism?
Or was it Mao's weapon of choice in a struggle to regain power over the party - but a weapon that went out of control? The GCR was probably a combination of these two factors, but it seems that Mao's primary goal was to regain total power, have China pursue radical policies, and thus "save the revolution.
Here we should note that Stalin's purges and terror of were triggered by criticism within the party leadership of his brutal collectivization policy. Once he had eliminated all real and potential rivals as well as all their relatives and friends, he had absolute power and could implement his policiies.
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It is true that after the failure of the GLF, Mao had seemed to go into semi-retirement. However, he soon indicated his opposition both to moderate economic policies and closer relations with the USSR. Mao launched the offensive against his opponents within the party by attacking first on the fringes, i.
He had always distrusted intellectuals, and now the moderate party leaders defended them and worked for the rehabilitation of those persecuted after the the " Flowers" campaign of Therefore, Mao decided to fight his party opponents by attacking the intellectuals. To do this, he set out to build up a new force of his own outside of the party, in the cities. As his weapon he chose young, particularly frustrated high school students. These students had been raised as loyal supporters of Mao, so they were considered trustworthy.
At the same time, they were dissatisfied with the existing elitist educational system, which favored the children of party bureaucrats and high military officers. They studied in the best high schools and had automatic access to university studies, while others had very little chance to pass entrance exams. The Great Cultural Revolution acquired its name from the fact that it began with an attack on a play dealing with the dismissal of a loyal bureaucrat.
Hai Rui under the Ming dynasty in China. He was an honest man who told his ruler the truth and was punished for it. This play, titled; "Hai Rui Dismissed from Office," was written in by the deputy mayor of Beijing, Wu Hanwho was also a distinguished historian of the Ming period. He also supported moderate economic policy.
It was an old Chinese tradition -- which had always included censorship -- to criticize present policies by writing about similar policies followed in the past. Chinese intellectuals read the play as an allegory to Wu Han's old ally, the former Minister of Defense, Marshal Peng Dehuai, who had been punished for his criticism of the Great Leap Forward.
Furthermore, Wu Han not only favored moderate policies and defended intellectuals, but also had far more influence in Beijing than Mao himself. The attack on Wu Han soon turned into an attack on "bourgeois influence" in art and literature, and then on intellectuals in general, but academics in particular.
The attack was first led by party cadres, headed by Mao's wife Jiang Qing, who was now dictator of Culture in China. Certainly, it was not of her own volition that a young female professor of philosophy at Beijing University put up a poster calling for the Cultural Revolution to become a mass movement. In fact, we know that Mao had her poster reprinted and put up everywhere. He also supported -- and more likely inspired -- the formation by the students of a Red Guard, and allowed them to attack their professors, whom Mao rightly viewed as supporters of moderate party leaders.
Furthermore, in their fervor to destroy all vestiges of the "old" -- a favorite target of Mao's -- the Red Guards predominantly high school students went on to attack and destroy treasures of Chinese culture, i.
They also went on to attack anything representing both Soviet and Western capitalist influence; by the same token, they supported Mao's criticism of the moderate party leaders who favored improved relations with the USSR. They also savaged people wearing Western clothes and mistreated, or even killed Chinese who had been employed by Western firms before they left China. We should note that the police and the military had orders not to interfere with these "Red Guards.
Indeed, at the height of the GCR, China withdrew its ambassadors and diplomats from all countries except Egypt, thus virtually isolating itself itself from other world governments. In AugustMao finally turned the movement against his real objective: The attack was led by Lin Biao.
Many former party leaders were either killed, or died from beatings, or were sent into the villages to be worked nearly to death. Some, like Liu Shaoqi, died in prison for lack of necessary medical care. Indeed, as Li Zhisui points out, Mao had taken care beforehand to abolish the privileged medical care that had always been given to party leaders - though he preserved it for himself and his supporters.
Above all, thousands of China's university teachers were first humiliated, by being paraded in dunces' caps, then beaten and either killed or sent out to the countryside as forced labor in the communes. The universities were closed down during the fighting, after which workers and peasants were admitted without having to pass entrance exams.
This, of course, helped to bring down the level of education even further. Party leaders were also sent down to the villages, including Deng Xiaoping and his family. Deng's son was so mistreated that he became an invalid. The Red Guards were told to travel around China and continue their attacks on intellectuals and party leaders.
Central control broke down as various factions fought each other for power in the cities. China was in chaos. The prisons were full of prisoners, many of whom died either from beatings or from lack of proper medical care. Was Mao really intent on restoring the purity of the revolution and the power of the masses?
Perhaps this is what he made himself believe, but he used these slogans to justify the reimposition of his own total power over the party, for in his view only he knew which way China should go. However, he clearly miscalculated his ability to check the movement when it had carried out his wishes.
At any rate, he was unable to check it before it threatened to disintegrate the country. In the end, he had to use the army to restore order. She became the dictator of Chinese culture, subordinating all artistic and literary productions to serve the cause of "revolution. She persecuted not only so-called bourgeois artists, i. The Cultural Revolution began to peter out inafter Mao had used the army to restore order in the provincial cities.
It was high time. As it happened, President Richard M. Nixon had long advocated improving relations with China. In Aprila U. The visit seemed to be a success. The American delegation did not realize that Mao had been rescued from death due to heart failure just a few weeks earlier.
He had been resuscitated and had received special medical care to make him fit for his meeting with Nixon. As for Mao, he was only too pleased to tweak Moscow's nose by improving relations with the United States, thus greatly strengthening China's security.
The Lin Biao Affair. Lin Biao had developed the cult of Mao in China. He was the head of the army. However, in AugustMao began to suspect him. According to Li Zhisui, Lin Biao made the same mistake as Liu Shaoqi before him - he wanted the post of chairman of the party. After Liu's fall, the post had been abolished - now Lin Biao wanted to restore it. He proposed that Mao resume it, but expected Mao to refuse - Mao was 77 years old - so that it would fall to him Biao.
Mao now suspected that Lin Biao was plotting to overthrow him. He thought Lin would use the army.
He said he did not think the army would go against him, but if it did, he would go back to Jinggangshan and start another guerrilla war. This is where Mao had launched his war against Chiang-Kai shek in In mid-AugustMao set out south by train to rally all party, government and military leaders. The message was that at the Lushan party conference the previous August: That person was trying to split the party and grab power for himself. If you answer 10 questions correctly you are able to go to the beach with her and see her in her outfit.
Tokimeki no Houkago, a quiz game for the PlayStation where you pick one of the other female characters from Tokimemo 1 as your partner and try to win her. Unlike the Private Collection game this game contains questions on general real life topics and not the actual Tokimeki series of the time sport, manga, books etc.
This is the only time in the game's series for Tokimeki Memorial 1—3 where you can also win with a male character. You can pick Yoshio Saotome the info otaku where you get all the information on the girls as your partner. There is an ending with him where you both make a promise to each other to find a girlfriend.
Essentially this is like the "Bad Ending" from Tokimemo 1 only with pictures added. Also this game expands on the endings from Tokimemo 1 somewhat in that you get to see pictures of them with some slight animation corresponding to their endings.
For example, Ayako Katagiri wants to go to Paris to go to an art school. Her ending involves you seeing her off at the airport accompanied by a picture.
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