MacKenzie, A.B., Hardie, S.M.L., Farmer, J.G., Eades, L.J. and Pulford, I.D. () Analytical and sampling constraints in Pb dating. Science. Pb dating provides a valuable, widely used means of establishing recent chronologies for sediments and other accumulating natural. Pb excess is extensively used for dating sediments in paleoenvironmental studies (Appleby and Analytical and sampling constraints in Pb dating.
Gamma ray spectrometry is a direct counting method of the low-energy However, there are some challenges for biological and environmental samples Jia et al. The self-absorption of Therefore, the high correction factors with associated high relative uncertainties are unavoidable.
The minimum detectable activity MDA of this technique is higher than that required for the most environmental applications, when maximum sensitivity and accuracy are required, the chemical separation method still remains the first choice. Alpha and beta techniques for determination of total Pb after radiochemical separation are more sensitive and can provide improved analytical precision Mabit et al.
The main advantage is that the evaluation of Pb through the determination of Po using alpha spectrometry and Bi by beta particles spectrometry has a much lower limit of detection in comparison with gamma spectrometry and requires only gram-size samples Barlas Simsek and Cagatay, ; Zaborska at al, On the other hand, methods involving chemical separation steps require secular equilibrium to be established between Pb and Po or Bi.
This introduces long delays between separation and the counting time Villa et al. Determination of Pb via its beta emitting daughter Bi using liquid scintillation counting LSC technique could be an alternative to alpha spectrometry, as it eliminates long wait for secular equilibrium, and provides a comparable detection limit with alpha spectrometry Villa et al.
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Using this technique, Pb is separated by precipitation as lead sulphide PbS or lead sulphate PbSO4 and measured with liquid scintillation or proportional counter. Before precipitation, interfering bismuth is separated from the solution by an anion exchange resin column. The advantage made with the help of Bi is that the measurement does not need to be made immediately after the separation of Pb Lechto and Hou, This method has a wide applicability for measuring low level Pb concentrations in most environmental samples Jia and Torri, The most commonly used models for Pb chronology are based on radioactive decay equations for converting Pbex data from a sediment profile into a sediment chronology and include: Descriptions of the models and the associated equations have been reported in Krishnaswamy et al.
Model selection depends on environmental conditions, sediment processes, such as bioturbation, erosion, deposition. The CIC model is appropriate when initial activity of Pbex is constant and there is no mixing of surface sediments MacKenzie et al. The CRS model assumes that the supply of Pbex to the accreting material is constant in time Appleby and Olfield,the initial Pb concentration in the sediments is variable, and the influx rate of sediment is variable Goldberg, and Appleby and Oldfield, Been found in program zone juggins, been found.
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